The most common infections are listed here, along with the disease they usually cause, and the CD4 cell count when the disease becomes active:
· Candidiasis(Thrush) is a fungal infection of the mouth, throat, or vagina. CD4 cell range: can occur even with fairly high CD4 cells.
· Cytomegalovirus(CMV) is a viral infection that causes eye disease that can lead to blindness. CD4 cell range: under 50.
· Herpes simplex virusescan cause oral herpes (cold sores) or genital herpes. These are fairly common infections, but if you have HIV, the outbreaks can be much more frequent and more severe. They can occur at any CD4 cell count.
· Malariais common in the developing world. It is more common and more severe in people with HIV infection.
· Mycobacterium avium complex(MAC or MAI) is a bacterial infection that can cause recurring fevers, general sick feelings, problems with digestion, and serious weight loss. CD4 cell range: under 50.
· Pneumocystis pneumonia(PCP) is a fungal infection that can cause a fatal pneumonia. CD4 cell range: under 200. Unfortunately, this is still a fairly common OI in people who have not been tested or treated for HIV.
· Toxoplasmosis(Toxo) is a protozoal infection of the brain. CD4 cell range: under 100.
· Tuberculosis(TB) is a bacterial infection that attacks the lungs, and can cause meningitis. CD4 cell range: Everyone with HIV who tests positive for exposure to TB should be treated.